Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
- Style and format
Contributors should consider the following specific requirements to prepare their manuscript for submission to the EJES.
- Title of the manuscript
The following should appear on the title page:
- The full title of the manuscript
The title should be short, not more than 15 words, precise and straightforward directed at the general reader. Contributors are encouraged to avoid lengthy, systematic names and complicated ideas from their titles. Non-standard abbreviations and symbols should not be used at all in a title.
- The name(s), full address, and institutional affiliation of the authors(s)
The author(s) of a manuscript should give his/her/their full name(s). To give due acknowledgement to all authors contributing to the work, those who have contributed to the research should be listed as co-authors. Upon submission of the manuscript, the corresponding author attests to the fact that those named as co-authors have agreed to its submission for publication and accepts the responsibility for having properly included all (and only) co-authors. If there is a difference in the level of contribution of the co-authors, the corresponding author should provide a statement specifying the contribution of each co-author. Besides, the corresponding author signs a copyright license on behalf of all co-authors.
The title page should also include the academic and/or other professional affiliations and the complete mailing address of the author(s). Affiliations should be indicated at the bottom of the title page with an asterisk if it is a single author, and by numerical superscripts against each name if more than one author.
The abstract should summarize the content of the paper. It should provide a clear and precise description of what the study is about including the problem, objective, method, major finding, conclusion and recommendations. Do not make references nor display equations and abbreviations in the abstract. The abstract should not exceed 250 words, including keywords. It should be italicized, written in single line space, 10 font size.
The keywords should be placed under the abstract. About 3 to 6 keywords or phrases can be stated in alphabetical order, separated by a comma.
The introduction section should explain the nature of the problem, previous related works on the topic and the purpose and contribution/s of the paper. Hence, this introduction section may also contain theoretical and empirical findings in order to put the major problem or topic of the study into context. In addition, it needs to show existing knowledge gaps in the area, derive objectives and emphasize major contributions of the study.
- Description of the Study area and population
This section under the description of the study area may contain a brief explanation about the location of the study area, physical setting, climate, population, social, economic and cultural aspects of the study area.
The research methods used for the study should be stated in this section. The research design, sampling techniques, methods of data collection, tools for data collection, and methods of data analysis should be included here with adequate justifications.
- Conceptual framework
It is optional based on the nature of the study. It is not mandatory for all papers. A conceptual framework can be depicted in the form of figures (e.g. flow charts, diagrams etc.), in the form of written statements or both. The conceptual framework should be a brief description of the study that depicts major variables and their relationship as a reflection of the analyses within the context of the study.
- Findings and Discussion
This section includes the results or findings of the study supported by a discussion. It contains data presentation, data interpretation and/or discussion substantiating the result of the study with relevant literature, theory and empirical evidence. Authors may use narrations, descriptions, tables, graphs, charts, statistical models, formulas, etc. to write this section depending on the type of data and research approach employed in the study. In this section, authors are expected to show their unique and/or new contributions to knowledge by comparing their findings with existing literature.
- Conclusion and Recommendations
This section includes the conclusions and recommendations. The conclusion statements should include major conclusions drawn from the findings. However, do not replicate the abstract within the conclusion section. The conclusion may magnify major findings of the study and its implication as well as the importance of the work for practical application of knowledge and extension of ideas. Recommendations (though not always mandatory for all disciplines) of the study should be stated following the conclusion with brief statements. The recommendations may deal with suggestions of remedial options for intervention by concerned body’s to manage investigated issues within the study.
Acknowledgements appear in a separate paragraph after the conclusion section, but before the references, and should be as brief as possible. All sources of funding should also be declared for articles published from funded projects.
- References and Citation of Notes
This section deals with in-text citation and referencing techniques that should be applied under Social Sciences and Education Disciplines.
- In-text Citation
Social Sciences and Education Disciplines follow the American Psychological Association (APA) style of referencing. Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present on the reference list (and vice versa). Personal communications are not recommended on the reference list, but maybe mentioned in the text and indicated in footnotes. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Direct quotations should be as short as possible and should be reproduced exactly in all details (spelling, punctuation and paragraphing) as the original. Short quotations (four or less than four lines) should run into the text and be enclosed in quotation marks. Similarly, long quotations (five or more than five lines) should be set off from the text in a separate paragraph indented (five spaces from the left) and single-spaced between lines. Quotations marks are omitted.
- References should be cited in the text as follows:
- Use et al. when citing a work by more than three authors.
Example: The nexus between environment and development, as Rony et al. (2016) states that…
- The letters a, b, c and so on should be used to distinguish citations of different works by the same author/s in the same year.
Example: FAO (2010b) recommends that…
- Only the first name of Ethiopian authors should be cited in the text.
Example: Demel Teketay should be cited as (Demel, 2016)
- Essential notes should be indicated by consecutive superscript numbers in the text and in the footnotes.
- Authors of all references cited in the text and other supporting materials should be listed alphabetically in a section entitled References.
- Ethiopian names should be written in full in the References, and the order should be: first (given) name followed by the third name.
- Honorific titles such as Prof., Dr., W/ro, W/rt, Ato, Mr. Mrs. Commander, etc. should be avoided in citation and references.
This heading is not assigned a number.
A reference list must be included using the following information as a guide. Only cited text references are included. All references must be arranged in alphabetical order.
- Reference style
The references should be arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name (for all authors except Ethiopian authors) then chronologically per author. Publications by the same author in the same year should be listed by year followed by the letters a. b. c. etc. (e.g. 2002a. 2002b, 2002c.). Some examples of referencing for different published and unpublished sources are illustrated below:
- Journal article
Author(s), year of publication (in parenthesis), the title of the article (sentence case), the full name of Journal (in italic), volume, issue number (in parenthesis), and page numbers in fully separated from volume number with a colon. Where page numbers are not known, articles should be cited by DOI (Digital Object Identifier).
- Gemedo Dalle., Brigitte, L., and Isselstein, J. (2005). Plant Biodiversity and Ethnobotany of Borana Pastoralists in Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. Economic Botany, 59(1): 43-65
- Tamire Geda and Mengistu Seyou. (2013). Zooplankton community grazing rates in a small crater Lake: Lake Kuriftu, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 36(1): 1-18.
Author(s), year of publication (in parenthesis), the title of the book (bold font), publisher and place of publication (city/town)
- Perrott, E. (1982). Effective Teaching: A Practical Guide to Improve your Teaching. Longman Inc: New York.
- Nair, P. K. R. (1993). An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers: London.
Author(s), year of publication (in parenthesis), the title of the publication in italics, name of the proceedings (bold font), pages, place (city/town, country)
- Sebsebe Demisse and Edwards, S. (2006). The Diversity of Vegetation Types, Agricultural Systems and Their Crops in Ethiopia.Proceedings of the Workshop on Facilitating the Implementation and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Ethiopia, pp 92-107, Melkassa Agricultural Research Center, Melkassa, Ethiopia
- Eshetu Derso, Teame Geberzgi and Girma Adugna (2000). Significance of minor diseases of Coffee arabica in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) in Ethiopia, pp. 35-46, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Author(s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the thesis, type (MA, MSc. MPhil or PhD), University, Country
- Mwavu, E. N. (2007). Human Impact, Plant Communities, Diversity and Regeneration in Budongo Forest Reserve, North-western Uganda. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
- Web references
The full URL and the date the reference was last accessed should be provided. Any further information, if known (e.g., DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.
Toni, R.L. and Culvert, L.L. (2003). Safer Hospital Stay and Reducing Hospital-Born Infections. Health Scout News. http://www.healthscout.com, (accessed January 9, 2010).
- Other important rules
- Length of an Article
The manuscript should not exceed 8, 000 words including references); including the abstract. The abstract should be provided on a separate page.
Use the following formats for manuscript submission.
The headings and sub-headings starting with "1. Introduction", appears in upper and lower case letters and should be set in bold and aligned flush left. All headings from the Introduction to Acknowledgements are numbered sequentially using 1, 2, 3, etc. Subheadings are numbered 1.1, 1.2, etc. If a subsection must be further divided, the numbers 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc. will be used.
The font size for the heading is 11 points bold face and subsections with 10 points and not bold. Do not underline any of the headings, or add dashes, colons, etc.
- Indentations and Equations
The first paragraph under each heading or subheading should be flush left, and subsequent paragraphs should have a five-space indentation. A colon is inserted before an equation is presented, but there is no punctuation following the equation. All equations are numbered and referred to in the text solely by a number enclosed in a round bracket (i.e., (3) reads as "equation 3"). Ensure that any miscellaneous numbering system you use in your paper cannot be confused with a reference  or an equation (3) designation.
- Tables and Figures
To ensure a high-quality product, diagrams and lettering must be either computer-drafted or drawn using India ink.
- Tables and graphs should be of reproducible quality. They should include only comprehensive captions and not duplicate material presented in the text. Moreover, they should be given short titles, and properly labelled and carefully drawn. All sources should be placed under the table. Furthermore, each table must have a caption at the top and fully showing the content with the table numbered in Arabic numbers (i.e. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
- Table captions appear centred above the table in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a table in the text, no abbreviation is used and "Table" is capitalized.
- Figures should contain numerals as captions at the bottom of or below the figure. Figure numerals and colon should be in bold, and the caption in the normal case. Each figure must be fully cited if taken from another source and referred to in the body of the article. Colored figures shall be used only if it is very important.
- Figure captions appear below the figure, are flush left, and are in lower case letters. When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Fig." is used. Figures should be numbered in the order they appear in the text.
ArticlesSection default policy
Hawassa University is not charging authors any sort of publication fee and hence owns the copyright of all published articles.
It is mandatory that if illustrations (graphs, images, tables) are used from articles published elsewhere, the authors obtain permission from the copyright owners.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.